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Analisis Of Food and Agricultural Products Carbohydrate

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ANALYSIS OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS
"CARBOHYDRATE"






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Muhammad Wasil


AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY
TECHNOLOGY FACULTY OF AGRICULTURE
UNIVERSITY JAMBI
2016


BAB I
PRELIMINARY
1.1   Background
Carbohydrates provide the basic necessity of living bodies. Monosaccharides, especially glucose, the main nutrient cells. For example, in vertebrates, the glucose in the bloodstream so it is available for all body cells. The body's cells absorb glucose and take the energy stored in these molecules in cellular respiration process to run the body's cells. In addition, carbon monosaccharide framework also serves as a raw material for synthetic type of small organic molecules, including amino acids and fatty acids. As a nutrient for humans, 1 gram of carbohydrates has 4 calories of energy value. In the diet of people of Southeast Asia, including Indonesia, are generally quite high carbohydrate content, which is between 70% -80%. bahhan these carbohydrates as whole grains or cereals (wheat and rice), tubers (potatoes, cassava, sweet potatoes) and sugar
The energy contained in the carbohydrates are basically derived from solar energy. Carbohydrates, in this case glucose, formed from carbon dioxide and water with the help of sunlight and chlorophyll in the leaves. Further formed glucose is converted into starch and stored in another part, for example in fruit or tuber. The process of formation of glucose from carbon dioxide and water is called photosynthesis.
In biochemistry, carbohydrates are the polyhydroxyl polyhydroxyl-aldehydes or ketones, or compounds that produce these compounds when hydrolyzed sennyawa. Carbohydrates contain a carbonyl functional group (as aldehydes or ketones) and banayak hydroxyl groups. At first, the term used for a group of carbohydrate compounds having the formula (CH 2 O) n, ie compounds n carbon atoms n looks hydrated by water molecules. However, there are also carbohydrates that do not have such a formula and some containing nitrogen, phosphorus, or sulfur.



1.1   Problem
1.       What is a carbohydrate?
2.       How kliasifikasi carbohydrates?
3.       How does the metabolism of carbohydrates in the body?
4.       What are the roles and functions of carbohydrates?

1.2   Objectives
1.       To know the definition of carbohydrates
2.       To determine the classification of carbohydrates
3.       To determine the metabolism of carbohydrates in the body
4.       To determine the role and functions of carbohydrates














BAB II
DISCUSSION
2.1 Definition of Carbohydrates
Karbohidarat ie organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, danoksigen. Consists of elements C, H, O with a ratio of 1 atom C, 2 H atoms, one atom O. carbohydrate found in many plants and animals for structural and metabolic role. While in plants for the synthesis of CO2 + H2O which would produce starch / cellulose, through the process of photosynthesis, while animals can not produce carbohydrates so dependent plants. carbohydrates are a source of energy and energy reserves, which through metabolic processes.
Carbohydrates or hydrates Charcoal is a nutrient that functions primarily as a producer of energy, which produces 4 calories per gram. Although fat produces more energy, but more carbohydrates in their daily consumption as a staple food, particularly in developing countries. In developing countries carbohydrate consumed about 70-80% of total calories, even in poor areas can reach 90%. While in the developed countries of carbohydrates consumed only about 40-60%. This is due to the source material carbohydrate-containing foods less expensive than a source of food rich in fat and protein.
In biochemistry, carbohydrates are the polyhydroxyl polyhydroxyl-aldehydes or ketones, or compounds that produce these compounds when dihidrolisis.Karbohidrat containing a carbonyl functional group as an aldehyde or ketone) and many hydroxyl groups. At first, the term used for a group of carbohydrate compounds having the formula (CH 2 O) n, ie compounds n carbon atoms n looks hydrated by water molecules. However, there are also carbohydrates that do not have such a formula and some containing nitrogen, phosphorus, or sulfur.
The simplest form of carbohydrate molecule composed of one simple sugar molecules called monosaccharides such as glucose, galactose and fructose. Many carbohydrates is a polymer composed of sugar molecules are strung into long chains and can also be branched, called polysaccharides, eg starch, chitin and cellulose. In addition to monosaccharides and polysaccharides, there is also a disaccharide (set of two monosaccharides) and oligosaccharides (a series of several monosaccharides). Due to such compositions, these compounds once mistaken for a carbon hydrate, but since 1880, the compound is not the hydrates of carbon. Another name of carbohydrate is a saccharide, comes from the Arabic "sakkar" means sugar. Simple carbohydrates have a sweet taste that is associated with sugar. Seeing their molecular structure, carbohydrate is more precisely defined as a polihidroksialdehid or polihidroksiketon. Examples of glucose; is a polyhydroxy aldehyde because it has an aldehyde group da 5 a hydroxyl group (OH).

Carbohydrates are found in cereals (rice, wheat, corn, potatoes, etc.), some fruits, as well as in grains which are widespread in nature.
The general formula of carbohydrates is Cn (H2O) m, whereas most we know that glucose: C6H12O6, sucrose: C12H22O11, cellulose (C6H10O5) n

2.2 Classification of Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates contained in foods can be classified:
1.      Available Carbohydrate
Available Carbohydrate (Carb available), namely carbohydrates that can be digested, absorbed and metabolized as carbohydrates.
2.       unvailable Carbohydrate (Carbohydrates that are not available)
Unvailable Carbohydrate (Carbohydrates that are not available), a carbohydrate that can not be hydrolyzed by human digestive enzymes, so it can not be absorbed.


Classification of carbohydrates are most commonly used in nutritional science is based on the number of molecules.
1.       Monosaccharides
Monosaccharides namely: the simplest carbohydrates (simple sugar), and therefore can no longer be hydrolyzed. Monosaccharide soluble in water and sweet, so it is generally referred to as sugar. Naming chemical usually ending -osa. In Nutritional Sciences there are only three types of monosaccharides are important, namely, glucose, fructose and galactose. Based on the carbonyl group, monosaccharides can be either aldose (containing aldehyde) and ketosa (containing a ketone group).
Monosaccharides from carbohydrates, namely: hexose (containing 6 carbon atoms), glucose, fructose, galactose, pentose (containing 5 carbon atoms), Ribose, Arabinose, xylose

·          Glucose
Sometimes people call grape sugar or dextrose. Many occur in nature, especially in fruits, vegetables, honey, corn syrup and molasses. In the body of glucose obtained from starch digestion end, sucrose, maltose and lactose.
Glucose is a aldohexoses and is often called dextrose because it has the properties can rotate polarized light to the right. This monosaccharide containing five hydroxyl group and an aldehyde group attached to a six-carbon chain. The main function of glucose is the source of energy in living cells.
Glucose found in the bloodstream (called Blood Sugar) and serves as a provider of energy to all cells and tissues of the body. In the physiological state of Blood Sugar Levels approximately 80-120 mg%. Blood sugar levels can be increased beyond the normal is called hyperglycemia, a condition found in patients with Diabetes Mellitus.

·          Fructose
Fructose is a ketohektosa that have a nature rotate polarized light to the left and therefore also called levulose. Fructose contains five hydroxyl and carbonyl groups of ketones at C-2 of the six-carbon chain. These molecules are mostly located in the cyclic form. Fructose is found in fruits, is the sweetest sugar. Together with glucose is the main component of honey. Is a kind of saccharide sweetest, many dijjumpai on a crown of flowers, honey and a result of hydrolysis of sugar cane. In the body of fructose derived from sucrose breakdown products.

·          galactose
Galactose is a monosaccharide that is rarely found free in nature. Generally binds to glucose in the form of lactose, the sugar found in milk. Galactose has a less sweet taste than the less soluble dalarn glucose and water. Galactose has the properties rotate the plane of polarization to right, galactose in the body is the result of the hydrolysis of lactose.

·          Glyceraldehyde (the simplest carbohydrates)
This carbohydrate contains only three atoms C (triose), in the form of aldehyde (aldose) so called aldotriosa.

·          Ribose (used in the formation of RNA)
Because it is a constituent RNA template it is important for genetic ribose is not an energy source. If the C atom number 2 of ribose O atom loses, it will be deoxyribose is penyusuna DNA framework.

2.       Disaccharides
 Disaccharide is a compound formed from two monosaccharide molecules similar or not. Disaccharide can be hydrolyzed by an acid solution in water to decompose into two molecules of monosaccharides. Disaccharide unit consisting of sucrose, maltose, lactose and selobiosa.Keempat this disaccharide having the same molecular formula (C12H22O11) but different molecular structure. Disaccharide composed by two units of sugars, such as sucrose prepared by glucose and fructose, maltoda built by two units of glucose, and lactose built by glucose and galactose. Disaccharide on karbohidarat are: sucrose, maltose, sucrose and cellobiose.
·          Sucrose
Sucrose is the sugar which we are familiar in daily life, both derived from sugar cane or beet. In addition to the sugar cane and beet, sucrose also be found in other turnbuhan, rnisalnya dalarn in pineapple and carrots. By hydrolysis of sucrose would be split and produce glucose and fructose. Sucrose is formed from glycoside bond between carbon number 1 on glucose to carbon number 2 on fructose.

·          maltose
Maltose is a disaccharide composed of two glucose molckul. Maltose is formed by bonding glucose gliko one carbon atom number 4 of the glucose others. The bond is between carbon atoms and carbon atoms numbers I -U.S. 4, therefore maltose still have glycosidic -OH group and thus still has the properties to reduce. Maltose is the result of the process, the starch hydrolysis by acids or enzymes.

·          Lactose
Lactose is the main hydrate in the milk of animals. When hydrolyzed lactose will produce D-galactose and D-glucose, because it is a disaccharide lactose. Galactose and glucose bonding occurs between the carbon atoms number 1 on galactose and carbon atom number 4 on glucose. Therefore they have a lactose molecule glycosidic -OH group. Thus the lactose has the properties to reduce and rotate.

·          Selobiosa
Cellobiose is a repeat unit in the cellulose. Cellobiose is composed of two monosaccharides glucose bonded carbon β glycosides.

3.       Polysaccharides
Polysaccharides are a complex carbohydrate compound, may contain more than 60,000 monosaccharide molecules are arranged to form a straight or branched chain. Polysaccharides tasted fresh (not sweet), not as a monosaccharide and disaccharide. In Nutritional Sciences at the last three (3) types that have to do is starch, dextrin, glycogen and cellulose.
       Adalahn polysaccharide chemical formula (C6H10O5) n. This molecule can be classified into structural polysaccharides such as cellulose, hyaluronic acid, and so forth. And nutrients such as starch polysaccharides (in plants and bacteria), glycogen (animal), and paramilum (types of protozoa).
       Generally, a compound polysaccharide white and crystalline, have no sweet taste and has no reducing properties. The molecular weight polysaccharide varies from a few thousand to over a million. Polysaccharides are soluble in water to form a colloidal solution. Some polysaccharides are important of which is starch, glycogen, dextrin and cellulose. Starch Polysaccharides there are many in nature, ie the vast majority of plants. Starch or in everyday language called starch contained in tubers, leaves, stems and seeds.
       Polysaccharides are compounds in which the molecules contain many monosaccharide units held together with ties gukosida. Polysaccharides fulfill three purposes in living systems as building materials, foodstuff and as a specific substance. Polysaccharides such as cellulose building materials that provide strength to the wood and branches for plants, and chitin, a structural component outer frame of insects. Polysaccharides are common food starch (starch in rice and potatoes) and glycogen in animals. While specific polysaccharide substance is heparin, a polysaccharide that prevents blood coagulation. Examples of polysaccharides are: Starch, Dextrin, glycogen, and cellulose

·          The starch (starch)
Is the main energy source for the entire population of adults in the world, especially in developing countries seclang therefore consumed as a staple food. Besides amilumjuga food rich in protein, vitamins, fiber and some other important nutrients. Starch is a carbohydrate in the form of deposits in the plants in the form of granules were found in the tubers and roots.
Source: tubers, cereals and grains are a source of starch that abound because of easily available for consumption. Corn, rice and wheat amilurnnya content of more than 70%, while the beans about 40%.
Starch is not soluble in cold water, but soluble in hot water forming highly concentrated liquids such as pasta; This event is called "gelatinization".

·          Dekstrin
Are intermediates in the breakdown of starch. The molecule is simpler, more easily soluble in water, denganjodium will change to a red color.

·          Glycoprotein
Glycoprotein is a protein-containing polysaccharides. This carbohydrate bound to the protein through bond glikosidik- to serine, threonine, or hydroxyproline hidrosilisin. Glycoprotein is a protein that binds to carbohydrate covalently bonded unit. This structure plays an important role in some of them in the process of immunological protection, blood clotting, the introduction of the cells, as well as interaction with other chemicals.

·          Glycogen
Glycogen is "animal starch", formed from the 1000 bond molecules, soluble in water (vegetable starch insoluble in water) and when it reacts with iodine to produce a red color. Glycogen is found in muscles of animals, humans and fish. When the animals are slaughtered, spasms (rigor mortis) and then glycogen is broken down into lactic acid during post mortum. Glycogen is stored in the liver and muscles as an energy reserve, which at times can be converted back into glucose when dibutuhkan.Sumber: there is lots of sprouts, cereals, milk, corn syrup (26%)

·          Cellulose
Nearly 50% carbohydrates derived from plants is cellulose, since cellulose is an important part of the cell walls of plants. Cellulose can not be digested by the human body, because there are no enzymes to break down cellulose. Although it can not be digested, cellulose serves as a source of fiber that can increase the volume of stool, so that will facilitate defecation.

Formerly fiber is used as an index to assess the quality of food, the higher the fiber content in the diet, the nutritional value of food is seen worse. But in the last decade, experts agree that fiber is a constituent component of human diet is very important. Without the fiber, resulting in constipation (constipation),haemorrhoid (Ambeyen), diverticulosis, colon cancer, appendicitis, diabetes, coronary heart disease and obesity.

2.3   metabolism karbodidrat
Digestion of carbohydrates has started since the food into the mouth; chewed food to be broken down into small parts, so the amount of food a wider surface contact with digestive enzymes.

·          Digestion in the mouth
Food in the mouth mix with saliva containing the enzyme amylase (ptyalin). Amylase enzyme works like a long chain carbohydrates break down starch and dextrin, will be broken down into simpler molecules  maltose. While saliva is useful to lubricate them easier to swallow food. Only a small fraction of starch that can be digested in the mouth, because the food is briefly located in the oral cavity. Therefore, food should be chewed longer, in order to give more opportunities starch breakdown in the mouth. With a mechanical process, the food is swallowed through the esophagus and will enter the stomach.


·          Digestion in the stomach
The process of solving forwarded starch in the stomach, as long as food has yet to react with stomach acid.

·          Digestion in the intestine
In the small intestine, maltose, sucrose and lactose from food or from decomposition of carbohydrates complex carbohydrates are converted into mono saccharides with the help of enzymes found in the small intestine.


·          Absorption
All types of carbohydrates absorbed in the form of monosaccharides, this absorption process occurs in the small intestine. Glucose and galactose enter the bloodstream by way of active transfers, whereas fructose by way of diffusion. Experts agree that carbohydrates can be absorbed in the form of disaccharide. This is evidenced by met maltose, sucrose and lactose sugar in the urine when consumed in large quantities. Finally various types of carbohydrates are converted into glucose prior to be included in the metabolic processes. Based on the order, the fastest in absorption is galactose, glucose and fructose last.





2.4   Role and Function of Carbohydrates

2.4.1 Roles of carbohydrates
1.     The role of the biosphere
Photosynthesis provides food for nearly all life on earth, either directly or indirectly. Autotrof organisms such as green plants, bacteria and photosynthetic algae utilize direct result of photosynthesis. Meanwhile, almost all heterotrophic organisms, including humans, is totally dependent on the organism autotrof to get food.
In the process of photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is converted into carbohydrates which can then be used to synthesize other organic materials. Carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis are three-carbon sugar called glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. These compounds are the basic ingredients of other compounds that are used directly by autotrof organisms, such as glucose, cellulose, and starch.

2.     Role as fuel and nutrients
Carbohydrates provide the basic necessity of living bodies. Monosaccharides, especially glucose, the main nutrient cells. For example, in vertebrates, the glucose in the bloodstream so it is available for all body cells. The body's cells absorb glucose and take the energy stored in these molecules in cellular respiration process to run the body's cells. In addition, carbon monosaccharide framework also serves as a raw material for the synthesis of other types of small organic molecules, including amino acids and fatty acids.
As a nutrient for humans, 1 gram of carbohydrates has 4 calories of energy value. In the diet of people of Southeast Asia, including Indonesia, are generally quite high carbohydrate content, which is between 70-80%. Food sources of these carbohydrates as whole grains or cereals (wheat and rice), tubers (potatoes, cassava, sweet potatoes) and sugar.
However, the digestibility of the human body to carbs vary depending on the source, which varies between 90% -98%. Fiber lowers digestibility of carbohydrates to 85% .Manusia can not digest cellulose so that the cellulose fibers are consumed by humans are just passing through the digestive tract and out with feces. Cellulose fibers scrape the walls of the digestive tract and stimulate mucus helps food pass through the digestive tract smoothly so-called cellulose as an important part of a healthy diet. Examples of foods that are rich in cellulose fiber are fresh fruits, vegetables, and grains.
Aside from being a source of energy, carbohydrates also serves to maintain the acid-base balance in the tubuhberperan important in metabolic processes in the body, and forming the structure of the cell by binding to proteins and fats.

3.     The role of energy reserves
Several types of polysaccharides function as material deposits or reserves, which will be hydrolyzed to provide sugar to cells when needed. Starch is a polysaccharide deposits in plants. Plants accumulate starch as granules or granules in the plastid organelles, including chloroplasts. By synthesizing starch, plants can accumulate excess glucose. Glucose is the main fuel cell, so that the starch is an energy reserve.
Meanwhile, animals store a polysaccharide called glycogen. Humans and other vertebrates store glycogen mainly in liver and muscle cells. Decomposition of glycogen in these cells will release glucose when sugar demand increases. However, glycogen can not be relied upon as an energy source animals for long periods of time. Glycogen stores will be depleted in just one day unless restored by eating food.

4.     The role of the builder material.
Organisms build strong materials from structural polysaccharides. For example, cellulose is the main component of plant cell walls. Cellulose is like fibers, clay, insoluble in water, and is found mainly in the stalk, stem, branches, and all the woody parts of the plant tissue. Wood is mainly made of cellulose and other polysaccharides, eg, hemicellulose and pectin. Meanwhile, the cotton is made almost entirely of cellulose.
Other important structural polysaccharide is chitin, a carbohydrate frame the outside (exoskeleton) arthropods (insects, spiders, crustaceans, and other animals like). Pure chitin-like skin, but will harden when coated calcium carbonate. Chitin is also found in the cell walls of various types of fungi.
Meanwhile, the bacterial cell wall is made of a composite structure with a polysaccharide carbohydrate peptide, called peptidoglycan. The cell walls form a rigid and porous skin wraps cells that give physical protection soft cell membrane and cytoplasm inside the cell.
Other structural carbohydrates which are also combined carbohydrate molecule with another molecule is proteoglycans, glycoproteins and glycolipids. Proteoglycans and glycoprotein consisting of carbohydrates and protein, but proteoglycans consist mainly of carbohydrates, whereas glycoprotein consists mainly of proteins. Proteoglycans found for example in the adhesive between cells in tissues, cartilage and synovial fluids that lubricate the joints muscles. Meanwhile, glycoproteins and glycolipids (a combination of carbohydrates and lipids) are found on the surface of animal cells. Carbohydrates in the form of oligosaccharides and glycoproteins in general can serve as a marker of cell. For example, empatgolongan human blood in the ABO system (A, B, AB, and O) reflects the diversity of oligosaccharide on the surface of red blood cells.

            2.4.2 Functions of carbohydrates
The primary function of carbohydrates as a source of energy (1 gram of carbohydrate generates 4 calories) for the needs of the cells of the body's tissues. Most of the carbohydrates are converted directly into energy for the body's activities, and partly stored in the form of glycogen in the liver and muscles. There are several body tissues such as the nervous system and erythrocytes can only use the energy derived from carbohydrates alone.
Here are some of the functions of carbohydrates:
1.     Keep and maintain working brain cells, and the lens.
2.     Set the body's metabolic processes.
3.     Maintain the balance of acids and bases.
4.     Establish a structure of cells, tissues and organs.
5.     Assist special calcium absorption of carbohydrates from the type of lactose.
6.     Protect the protein from being burned as an energy producer.
7.     Helps the metabolism of fats and proteins, thereby preventing the occurrence of ketosis and excessive protein breakdown.
8.     In the function of the liver to detoxify certain toxic substances.
9.     Some types of carbohydrates have a special function in the body. Ribose is an essential component in the nucleic acids.
10.Selain that some classes of indigestible carbohydrates, fiber (dietary fiber) are useful for digestion, such as cellulose, pectin and lignin.

2.4.3 The function of fiber
a. Preventing Coronary Heart Disease
Cholesterol has long been suspected as a cause of atherosclerosis, which ultimately resulted in the onset of coronary heart disease. The end product is a bile acid metabolism of cholesterol. Fiber from food when he got in the digestive tract will bind bile acids. In the bound state, her bile acids equal-equal fiber issued in the form of feces. With so transmitted more fiber eaten, the more lernak and cholesterol excluded.
People who consume foods high in fiber (especially fiber from seralia and nuts) .cenderung lower blood cholesterol levels and mortality due to coronary heart disease is lower than the Europeans who consume very little fiber. Other studies have shown that tribal Masai in Africa whose lives hunting and tribal Venda in South Africa whose lives farming, there were no coronary heart disease, although they mengkonsurnsi animal fats in high amounts, ie each rnasing 300 grams and 126 grams per day. This caused them to eat the corn that was not milled an average of 494 grams per day, which is estimated to 5.7 grams fiber content. Than the British average consumes only as much as 0.5 grams of fiber per day.

b. Preventing colon cancer
Cancer of the large intestine (colon) due to the entry of foreign objects into the large intestine, foreign objects will be converted into carcinogenic nature. The presence of coarse fibers that pass through the colon, resulting in impaired rnikroba environment so that microbial activity is reduced.

c. Preventing Diabetes
This statement is supported by a study conducted in Capetown, which showed that the fibers of the population consuming an average of 6.5 grams per day was found people with diabetes as much as 3.6%. While people who eat fiber on average 24.8 grams per day are found only 0.05% of patients.

d.       Prevent diverticular disease
Consumption of fiber is enough to produce a soft stool so that the muscle contraction is low (<10 mm Hg) feces can be removed smoothly. If konsurnsi fiber decreases, the volume of waste into small pieces and hardware (such as goat feces), so as to dispose require greater muscle contraction (tension can achieve> 90 mm Hg). If the strong pressure that takes place over and over again every day in the long term, the colon muscles become tired and weak. This situation causes the disease "diverticular", ie the outer protrusion shaped intestines ulcers that sometimes accompanied by inflammation that can cause infection.

e. preventing obesity
With the fiber, the absorption of carbohydrates, fats and proteins into the air less. If this is done regularly and continuously, then obesity can be avoided. Fiber is able to provide a feeling of satiety in a long time.
Good sources of fiber are vegetables, fruits, cereals and legumes. Eating vegetables and fruits in large quantities, mepunyai dual functions as well as a source of fiber is also a source of vitamins and minerals, all of which are necessary to maintain the health of the human body.
Animal food products, such as meat, fish, milk and eggs as well as dairy bacilli, generally contain small amounts of fiber. Yak tire vegetables that contain fiber are, spinach, kale, beans, beluntas leaves, cassava leaves, beans, leaves katuk, Moringa leaves, mustard, winged bean, cabbage and others. Fruits that contain lots of fiber is high, avocado, star fruit, sugar apple, jackfruit, jackfruit, durian, orange, kedondong, kemang, mango, pineapple and so forth.

Seralia rich in fiber are rice, corn, and barley jali. Mernpunyai milled rice swerat levels and vitamins (especially vitamin BI) is lower than rice turnbuk, therefore chose the rice should not be too clean (white). Nuts that contain fiber are Bogar beans, red beans, green beans, soybeans, and other beans.





BAB III
COVER
3.1   Conclusions
Carbohydrates are organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Classification of carbohydrates based hidrolilsisnya which consists of a monosaccharide, disaccharide, and polysaccharide. Metabolism of carbohydrates begins in the mouth and then solving penyarapan in the stomach and small intestine. As well as the body will have a lot of distractions when deprived of carbohydrates.

3.2  Saran
Suggestions of the author is that in studying carbohydrates in need of further testing and to allow for the isolation of carbohydrates in food and can determine carbohydrate content of the material itself.














BIBLIOGRAPHY

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RS Dr. Cipto Mangunkusomo and Nutritionist Association of Indonesia. 1996. Section Nutrition .Penuntun Diit.Penerbit PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama.Jakarta kedua.Jakarta Edition.
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